# Modules¶

## atmosphere¶

The atmosphere module contains methods to calculate relative and absolute airmass and to determine pressure from altitude or vice versa.

pvlib.atmosphere.absoluteairmass(airmass_relative, pressure=101325.0)[source]

Determine absolute (pressure corrected) airmass from relative airmass and pressure

Gives the airmass for locations not at sea-level (i.e. not at standard pressure). The input argument “AMrelative” is the relative airmass. The input argument “pressure” is the pressure (in Pascals) at the location of interest and must be greater than 0. The calculation for absolute airmass is

$absolute airmass = (relative airmass)*pressure/101325$
Parameters: airmass_relative : scalar or Series The airmass at sea-level. pressure : scalar or Series The site pressure in Pascal. scalar or Series Absolute (pressure corrected) airmass

References

[1] C. Gueymard, “Critical analysis and performance assessment of clear sky solar irradiance models using theoretical and measured data,” Solar Energy, vol. 51, pp. 121-138, 1993.

pvlib.atmosphere.alt2pres(altitude)[source]

Determine site pressure from altitude.

Parameters: Altitude : scalar or Series Altitude in meters above sea level Pressure : scalar or Series Atmospheric pressure (Pascals)

Notes

The following assumptions are made

Parameter Value
Base pressure 101325 Pa
Temperature at zero altitude 288.15 K
Gravitational acceleration 9.80665 m/s^2
Lapse rate -6.5E-3 K/m
Gas constant for air 287.053 J/(kgK)
Relative Humidity 0%

References

“A Quick Derivation relating altitude to air pressure” from Portland State Aerospace Society, Version 1.03, 12/22/2004.

pvlib.atmosphere.pres2alt(pressure)[source]

Determine altitude from site pressure.

Parameters: pressure : scalar or Series Atmospheric pressure (Pascals) altitude : scalar or Series Altitude in meters above sea level

Notes

The following assumptions are made

Parameter Value
Base pressure 101325 Pa
Temperature at zero altitude 288.15 K
Gravitational acceleration 9.80665 m/s^2
Lapse rate -6.5E-3 K/m
Gas constant for air 287.053 J/(kgK)
Relative Humidity 0%

References

“A Quick Derivation relating altitude to air pressure” from Portland State Aerospace Society, Version 1.03, 12/22/2004.

pvlib.atmosphere.relativeairmass(zenith, model='kastenyoung1989')[source]

Gives the relative (not pressure-corrected) airmass.

Gives the airmass at sea-level when given a sun zenith angle (in degrees). The model variable allows selection of different airmass models (described below). If model is not included or is not valid, the default model is ‘kastenyoung1989’.

Parameters: zenith : float or Series Zenith angle of the sun in degrees. Note that some models use the apparent (refraction corrected) zenith angle, and some models use the true (not refraction-corrected) zenith angle. See model descriptions to determine which type of zenith angle is required. Apparent zenith angles must be calculated at sea level. model : String Available models include the following: ‘simple’ - secant(apparent zenith angle) - Note that this gives -inf at zenith=90 ‘kasten1966’ - See reference [1] - requires apparent sun zenith ‘youngirvine1967’ - See reference [2] - requires true sun zenith ‘kastenyoung1989’ - See reference [3] - requires apparent sun zenith ‘gueymard1993’ - See reference [4] - requires apparent sun zenith ‘young1994’ - See reference [5] - requries true sun zenith ‘pickering2002’ - See reference [6] - requires apparent sun zenith airmass_relative : float or Series Relative airmass at sea level. Will return NaN values for any zenith angle greater than 90 degrees.

References

[1] Fritz Kasten. “A New Table and Approximation Formula for the Relative Optical Air Mass”. Technical Report 136, Hanover, N.H.: U.S. Army Material Command, CRREL.

[2] A. T. Young and W. M. Irvine, “Multicolor Photoelectric Photometry of the Brighter Planets,” The Astronomical Journal, vol. 72, pp. 945-950, 1967.

[3] Fritz Kasten and Andrew Young. “Revised optical air mass tables and approximation formula”. Applied Optics 28:4735-4738

[4] C. Gueymard, “Critical analysis and performance assessment of clear sky solar irradiance models using theoretical and measured data,” Solar Energy, vol. 51, pp. 121-138, 1993.

[5] A. T. Young, “AIR-MASS AND REFRACTION,” Applied Optics, vol. 33, pp. 1108-1110, Feb 1994.

[6] Keith A. Pickering. “The Ancient Star Catalog”. DIO 12:1, 20,

[7] Matthew J. Reno, Clifford W. Hansen and Joshua S. Stein, “Global Horizontal Irradiance Clear Sky Models: Implementation and Analysis” Sandia Report, (2012).

## clearsky¶

The clearsky module contains several methods to calculate clear sky GHI, DNI, and DHI.

pvlib.clearsky.haurwitz(apparent_zenith)[source]

Determine clear sky GHI from Haurwitz model.

Implements the Haurwitz clear sky model for global horizontal irradiance (GHI) as presented in [1, 2]. A report on clear sky models found the Haurwitz model to have the best performance of models which require only zenith angle [3]. Extreme care should be taken in the interpretation of this result!

Parameters: apparent_zenith : Series The apparent (refraction corrected) sun zenith angle in degrees. pd.Series The modeled global horizonal irradiance in W/m^2 provided by the Haurwitz clear-sky model. Initial implementation of this algorithm by Matthew Reno.

References

[1] B. Haurwitz, “Insolation in Relation to Cloudiness and Cloud
Density,” Journal of Meteorology, vol. 2, pp. 154-166, 1945.
[2] B. Haurwitz, “Insolation in Relation to Cloud Type,” Journal of
Meteorology, vol. 3, pp. 123-124, 1946.
[3] M. Reno, C. Hansen, and J. Stein, “Global Horizontal Irradiance Clear
Sky Models: Implementation and Analysis”, Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2012-2389, 2012.
pvlib.clearsky.ineichen(time, latitude, longitude, altitude=0, linke_turbidity=None, solarposition_method='nrel_numpy', zenith_data=None, airmass_model='young1994', airmass_data=None, interp_turbidity=True)[source]

Determine clear sky GHI, DNI, and DHI from Ineichen/Perez model

Implements the Ineichen and Perez clear sky model for global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), and calculates the clear-sky diffuse horizontal (DHI) component as the difference between GHI and DNI*cos(zenith) as presented in [1, 2]. A report on clear sky models found the Ineichen/Perez model to have excellent performance with a minimal input data set [3].

Default values for montly Linke turbidity provided by SoDa [4, 5].

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex latitude : float longitude : float altitude : float linke_turbidity : None or float If None, uses LinkeTurbidities.mat lookup table. solarposition_method : string Sets the solar position algorithm. See solarposition.get_solarposition() zenith_data : None or Series If None, ephemeris data will be calculated using solarposition_method. airmass_model : string See pvlib.airmass.relativeairmass(). airmass_data : None or Series If None, absolute air mass data will be calculated using airmass_model and location.alitude. interp_turbidity : bool If True, interpolates the monthly Linke turbidity values found in LinkeTurbidities.mat to daily values. DataFrame with the following columns: ghi, dni, dhi.

Notes

If you are using this function in a loop, it may be faster to load LinkeTurbidities.mat outside of the loop and feed it in as a keyword argument, rather than having the function open and process the file each time it is called.

References

[1] P. Ineichen and R. Perez, “A New airmass independent formulation for
the Linke turbidity coefficient”, Solar Energy, vol 73, pp. 151-157, 2002.
[2] R. Perez et. al., “A New Operational Model for Satellite-Derived
Irradiances: Description and Validation”, Solar Energy, vol 73, pp. 307-317, 2002.
[3] M. Reno, C. Hansen, and J. Stein, “Global Horizontal Irradiance Clear
Sky Models: Implementation and Analysis”, Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2012-2389, 2012.
[4] http://www.soda-is.com/eng/services/climat_free_eng.php#c5 (obtained
July 17, 2012).
[5] J. Remund, et. al., “Worldwide Linke Turbidity Information”, Proc.
ISES Solar World Congress, June 2003. Goteborg, Sweden.
pvlib.clearsky.lookup_linke_turbidity(time, latitude, longitude, filepath=None, interp_turbidity=True)[source]

Look up the Linke Turibidity from the LinkeTurbidities.mat data file supplied with pvlib.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex latitude : float longitude : float filepath : string The path to the .mat file. interp_turbidity : bool If True, interpolates the monthly Linke turbidity values found in LinkeTurbidities.mat to daily values. turbidity : Series

The irradiance module contains functions for modeling global horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance, diffuse horizontal irradiance, and total irradiance under various conditions.

pvlib.irradiance.aoi(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth)[source]

Calculates the angle of incidence of the solar vector on a surface. This is the angle between the solar vector and the surface normal.

Input all angles in degrees.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series. Panel tilt from horizontal. surface_azimuth : float or Series. Panel azimuth from north. solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. float or Series. Angle of incidence in degrees.
pvlib.irradiance.aoi_projection(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth)[source]

Calculates the dot product of the solar vector and the surface normal.

Input all angles in degrees.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series. Panel tilt from horizontal. surface_azimuth : float or Series. Panel azimuth from north. solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. float or Series. Dot product of panel normal and solar angle.
pvlib.irradiance.beam_component(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth, dni)[source]

Calculates the beam component of the plane of array irradiance.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series. Panel tilt from horizontal. surface_azimuth : float or Series. Panel azimuth from north. solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. dni : float or Series Direct Normal Irradiance Series
pvlib.irradiance.dirint(ghi, zenith, times, pressure=101325, use_delta_kt_prime=True, temp_dew=None)[source]

Determine DNI from GHI using the DIRINT modification of the DISC model.

Implements the modified DISC model known as “DIRINT” introduced in [1]. DIRINT predicts direct normal irradiance (DNI) from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). DIRINT improves upon the DISC model by using time-series GHI data and dew point temperature information. The effectiveness of the DIRINT model improves with each piece of information provided.

Parameters: ghi : pd.Series Global horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. zenith : pd.Series True (not refraction-corrected) zenith angles in decimal degrees. If Z is a vector it must be of the same size as all other vector inputs. Z must be >=0 and <=180. times : DatetimeIndex pressure : float or pd.Series The site pressure in Pascal. Pressure may be measured or an average pressure may be calculated from site altitude. use_delta_kt_prime : bool Indicates if the user would like to utilize the time-series nature of the GHI measurements. A value of False will not use the time-series improvements, any other numeric value will use time-series improvements. It is recommended that time-series data only be used if the time between measured data points is less than 1.5 hours. If none of the input arguments are vectors, then time-series improvements are not used (because it’s not a time-series). temp_dew : None, float, or pd.Series Surface dew point temperatures, in degrees C. Values of temp_dew may be numeric or NaN. Any single time period point with a DewPtTemp=NaN does not have dew point improvements applied. If DewPtTemp is not provided, then dew point improvements are not applied. dni : pd.Series. The modeled direct normal irradiance in W/m^2 provided by the DIRINT model.

References

[1] Perez, R., P. Ineichen, E. Maxwell, R. Seals and A. Zelenka, (1992). “Dynamic Global-to-Direct Irradiance Conversion Models”. ASHRAE Transactions-Research Series, pp. 354-369

[2] Maxwell, E. L., “A Quasi-Physical Model for Converting Hourly Global Horizontal to Direct Normal Insolation”, Technical Report No. SERI/TR-215-3087, Golden, CO: Solar Energy Research Institute, 1987.

DIRINT model requires time series data (ie. one of the inputs must be a vector of length >2.

pvlib.irradiance.disc(ghi, zenith, times, pressure=101325)[source]

Estimate Direct Normal Irradiance from Global Horizontal Irradiance using the DISC model.

The DISC algorithm converts global horizontal irradiance to direct normal irradiance through empirical relationships between the global and direct clearness indices.

Parameters: ghi : Series Global horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. solar_zenith : Series True (not refraction - corrected) solar zenith angles in decimal degrees. times : DatetimeIndex pressure : float or Series Site pressure in Pascal. DataFrame with the following keys: dni: The modeled direct normal irradiance in W/m^2 provided by the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) model. kt: Ratio of global to extraterrestrial irradiance on a horizontal plane. airmass: Airmass

atmosphere.alt2pres, dirint

References

[1] Maxwell, E. L., “A Quasi-Physical Model for Converting Hourly Global Horizontal to Direct Normal Insolation”, Technical Report No. SERI/TR-215-3087, Golden, CO: Solar Energy Research Institute, 1987.

[2] J.W. “Fourier series representation of the position of the sun”. Found at: http://www.mail-archive.com/sundial@uni-koeln.de/msg01050.html on January 12, 2012

pvlib.irradiance.extraradiation(datetime_or_doy, solar_constant=1366.1, method='spencer')[source]

Determine extraterrestrial radiation from day of year.

Parameters: datetime_or_doy : int, float, array, pd.DatetimeIndex Day of year, array of days of year e.g. pd.DatetimeIndex.dayofyear, or pd.DatetimeIndex. solar_constant : float The solar constant. method : string The method by which the ET radiation should be calculated. Options include 'pyephem', 'spencer', 'asce'. float or Series The extraterrestrial radiation present in watts per square meter on a surface which is normal to the sun. Ea is of the same size as the input doy. ‘pyephem’ always returns a series.

pvlib.clearsky.disc

Notes

The Spencer method contains a minus sign discrepancy between equation 12 of [1]. It’s unclear what the correct formula is.

References

[1] M. Reno, C. Hansen, and J. Stein, “Global Horizontal Irradiance Clear Sky Models: Implementation and Analysis”, Sandia National Laboratories, SAND2012-2389, 2012.

[2] <http://solardat.uoregon.edu/SolarRadiationBasics.html>, Eqs. SR1 and SR2

[3] Partridge, G. W. and Platt, C. M. R. 1976. Radiative Processes in Meteorology and Climatology.

[4] Duffie, J. A. and Beckman, W. A. 1991. Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, 2nd edn. J. Wiley and Sons, New York.

pvlib.irradiance.globalinplane(aoi, dni, poa_sky_diffuse, poa_ground_diffuse)[source]

Determine the three components on in-plane irradiance

Combines in-plane irradaince compoents from the chosen diffuse translation, ground reflection and beam irradiance algorithms into the total in-plane irradiance.

Parameters: aoi : float or Series Angle of incidence of solar rays with respect to the module surface, from aoi(). dni : float or Series Direct normal irradiance (W/m^2), as measured from a TMY file or calculated with a clearsky model. poa_sky_diffuse : float or Series Diffuse irradiance (W/m^2) in the plane of the modules, as calculated by a diffuse irradiance translation function poa_ground_diffuse : float or Series Ground reflected irradiance (W/m^2) in the plane of the modules, as calculated by an albedo model (eg. grounddiffuse()) DataFrame with the following keys: poa_global : Total in-plane irradiance (W/m^2) poa_direct : Total in-plane beam irradiance (W/m^2) poa_diffuse : Total in-plane diffuse irradiance (W/m^2)

Notes

Negative beam irradiation due to aoi $$> 90^{\circ}$$ or AOI $$< 0^{\circ}$$ is set to zero.

pvlib.irradiance.grounddiffuse(surface_tilt, ghi, albedo=0.25, surface_type=None)[source]

Estimate diffuse irradiance from ground reflections given irradiance, albedo, and surface tilt

Function to determine the portion of irradiance on a tilted surface due to ground reflections. Any of the inputs may be DataFrames or scalars.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or DataFrame Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. SurfTilt must be >=0 and <=180. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90). ghi : float or DataFrame Global horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. albedo : float or DataFrame Ground reflectance, typically 0.1-0.4 for surfaces on Earth (land), may increase over snow, ice, etc. May also be known as the reflection coefficient. Must be >=0 and <=1. Will be overridden if surface_type is supplied. surface_type: None or string in 'urban', 'grass', 'fresh grass', 'snow', 'fresh snow', 'asphalt', 'concrete', 'aluminum', 'copper', 'fresh steel', 'dirty steel'. Overrides albedo. float or DataFrame Ground reflected irradiances in W/m^2.

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267.

The calculation is the last term of equations 3, 4, 7, 8, 10, 11, and 12.

pvlib.irradiance.haydavies(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, dhi, dni, dni_extra, solar_zenith=None, solar_azimuth=None, projection_ratio=None)[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface using Hay & Davies’ 1980 model

$I_{d} = DHI ( A R_b + (1 - A) (\frac{1 + \cos\beta}{2}) )$

Hay and Davies’ 1980 model determines the diffuse irradiance from the sky (ground reflected irradiance is not included in this algorithm) on a tilted surface using the surface tilt angle, surface azimuth angle, diffuse horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance, extraterrestrial irradiance, sun zenith angle, and sun azimuth angle.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) surface_azimuth : float or Series Surface azimuth angles in decimal degrees. The azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North=0, South=180, East=90, West=270). dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. dni : float or Series Direct normal irradiance in W/m^2. dni_extra : float or Series Extraterrestrial normal irradiance in W/m^2. solar_zenith : None, float or Series Solar apparent (refraction-corrected) zenith angles in decimal degrees. Must supply solar_zenith and solar_azimuth or supply projection_ratio. solar_azimuth : None, float or Series Solar azimuth angles in decimal degrees. Must supply solar_zenith and solar_azimuth or supply projection_ratio. projection_ratio : None, float or Series Ratio of angle of incidence projection to solar zenith angle projection. Must supply solar_zenith and solar_azimuth or supply projection_ratio. sky_diffuse : float or Series The diffuse component of the solar radiation on an arbitrarily tilted surface defined by the Perez model as given in reference [3]. Does not include the ground reflected irradiance or the irradiance due to the beam.

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267

[2] Hay, J.E., Davies, J.A., 1980. Calculations of the solar radiation incident on an inclined surface. In: Hay, J.E., Won, T.K. (Eds.), Proc. of First Canadian Solar Radiation Data Workshop, 59. Ministry of Supply and Services, Canada.

pvlib.irradiance.isotropic(surface_tilt, dhi)[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface using the isotropic sky model.

$I_{d} = DHI \frac{1 + \cos\beta}{2}$

Hottel and Woertz’s model treats the sky as a uniform source of diffuse irradiance. Thus the diffuse irradiance from the sky (ground reflected irradiance is not included in this algorithm) on a tilted surface can be found from the diffuse horizontal irradiance and the tilt angle of the surface.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series Surface tilt angle in decimal degrees. surface_tilt must be >=0 and <=180. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. DHI must be >=0. float or Series The diffuse component of the solar radiation on an arbitrarily tilted surface defined by the isotropic sky model as given in Loutzenhiser et. al (2007) equation 3. SkyDiffuse is the diffuse component ONLY and does not include the ground reflected irradiance or the irradiance due to the beam. SkyDiffuse is a column vector vector with a number of elements equal to the input vector(s).

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267

[2] Hottel, H.C., Woertz, B.B., 1942. Evaluation of flat-plate solar heat collector. Trans. ASME 64, 91.

pvlib.irradiance.king(surface_tilt, dhi, ghi, solar_zenith)[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface using the King model.

King’s model determines the diffuse irradiance from the sky (ground reflected irradiance is not included in this algorithm) on a tilted surface using the surface tilt angle, diffuse horizontal irradiance, global horizontal irradiance, and sun zenith angle. Note that this model is not well documented and has not been published in any fashion (as of January 2012).

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. ghi : float or Series Global horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. solar_zenith : float or Series Apparent (refraction-corrected) zenith angles in decimal degrees. poa_sky_diffuse : float or Series The diffuse component of the solar radiation on an arbitrarily tilted surface as given by a model developed by David L. King at Sandia National Laboratories.
pvlib.irradiance.klucher(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, dhi, ghi, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth)[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface using Klucher’s 1979 model

$I_{d} = DHI \frac{1 + \cos\beta}{2} (1 + F' \sin^3(\beta/2)) (1 + F' \cos^2\theta\sin^3\theta_z)$

where

$F' = 1 - (I_{d0} / GHI)$

Klucher’s 1979 model determines the diffuse irradiance from the sky (ground reflected irradiance is not included in this algorithm) on a tilted surface using the surface tilt angle, surface azimuth angle, diffuse horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance, global horizontal irradiance, extraterrestrial irradiance, sun zenith angle, and sun azimuth angle.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. surface_tilt must be >=0 and <=180. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) surface_azimuth : float or Series Surface azimuth angles in decimal degrees. surface_azimuth must be >=0 and <=360. The Azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North = 0, South=180 East = 90, West = 270). dhi : float or Series diffuse horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. DHI must be >=0. ghi : float or Series Global irradiance in W/m^2. DNI must be >=0. solar_zenith : float or Series apparent (refraction-corrected) zenith angles in decimal degrees. solar_zenith must be >=0 and <=180. solar_azimuth : float or Series Sun azimuth angles in decimal degrees. solar_azimuth must be >=0 and <=360. The Azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North = 0, East = 90, West = 270). float or Series. The diffuse component of the solar radiation on an arbitrarily tilted surface defined by the Klucher model as given in Loutzenhiser et. al (2007) equation 4. SkyDiffuse is the diffuse component ONLY and does not include the ground reflected irradiance or the irradiance due to the beam. SkyDiffuse is a column vector vector with a number of elements equal to the input vector(s).

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267

[2] Klucher, T.M., 1979. Evaluation of models to predict insolation on tilted surfaces. Solar Energy 23 (2), 111-114.

pvlib.irradiance.perez(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, dhi, dni, dni_extra, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth, airmass, modelt='allsitescomposite1990')[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface using one of the Perez models.

Perez models determine the diffuse irradiance from the sky (ground reflected irradiance is not included in this algorithm) on a tilted surface using the surface tilt angle, surface azimuth angle, diffuse horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance, extraterrestrial irradiance, sun zenith angle, sun azimuth angle, and relative (not pressure-corrected) airmass. Optionally a selector may be used to use any of Perez’s model coefficient sets.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. surface_tilt must be >=0 and <=180. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) surface_azimuth : float or Series Surface azimuth angles in decimal degrees. surface_azimuth must be >=0 and <=360. The Azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North = 0, South=180 East = 90, West = 270). dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. DHI must be >=0. dni : float or Series Direct normal irradiance in W/m^2. DNI must be >=0. dni_extra : float or Series Extraterrestrial normal irradiance in W/m^2. solar_zenith : float or Series apparent (refraction-corrected) zenith angles in decimal degrees. solar_zenith must be >=0 and <=180. solar_azimuth : float or Series Sun azimuth angles in decimal degrees. solar_azimuth must be >=0 and <=360. The Azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North = 0, East = 90, West = 270). airmass : float or Series relative (not pressure-corrected) airmass values. If AM is a DataFrame it must be of the same size as all other DataFrame inputs. AM must be >=0 (careful using the 1/sec(z) model of AM generation) model : string (optional, default=’allsitescomposite1990’) A string which selects the desired set of Perez coefficients. If model is not provided as an input, the default, ‘1990’ will be used. All possible model selections are: ‘1990’ ‘allsitescomposite1990’ (same as ‘1990’) ‘allsitescomposite1988’ ‘sandiacomposite1988’ ‘usacomposite1988’ ‘france1988’ ‘phoenix1988’ ‘elmonte1988’ ‘osage1988’ ‘albuquerque1988’ ‘capecanaveral1988’ ‘albany1988’ float or Series The diffuse component of the solar radiation on an arbitrarily tilted surface defined by the Perez model as given in reference [3]. SkyDiffuse is the diffuse component ONLY and does not include the ground reflected irradiance or the irradiance due to the beam.

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267

[2] Perez, R., Seals, R., Ineichen, P., Stewart, R., Menicucci, D., 1987. A new simplified version of the Perez diffuse irradiance model for tilted surfaces. Solar Energy 39(3), 221-232.

[3] Perez, R., Ineichen, P., Seals, R., Michalsky, J., Stewart, R., 1990. Modeling daylight availability and irradiance components from direct and global irradiance. Solar Energy 44 (5), 271-289.

[4] Perez, R. et. al 1988. “The Development and Verification of the Perez Diffuse Radiation Model”. SAND88-7030

pvlib.irradiance.poa_horizontal_ratio(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth)[source]

Calculates the ratio of the beam components of the plane of array irradiance and the horizontal irradiance.

Input all angles in degrees.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series. Panel tilt from horizontal. surface_azimuth : float or Series. Panel azimuth from north. solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. float or Series. Ratio of the plane of array irradiance to the horizontal plane irradiance
pvlib.irradiance.reindl(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, dhi, dni, ghi, dni_extra, solar_zenith, solar_azimuth)[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface using Reindl’s 1990 model

$I_{d} = DHI (A R_b + (1 - A) (\frac{1 + \cos\beta}{2}) (1 + \sqrt{\frac{I_{hb}}{I_h}} \sin^3(\beta/2)) )$

Reindl’s 1990 model determines the diffuse irradiance from the sky (ground reflected irradiance is not included in this algorithm) on a tilted surface using the surface tilt angle, surface azimuth angle, diffuse horizontal irradiance, direct normal irradiance, global horizontal irradiance, extraterrestrial irradiance, sun zenith angle, and sun azimuth angle.

Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series. Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) surface_azimuth : float or Series. Surface azimuth angles in decimal degrees. The Azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North = 0, South=180 East = 90, West = 270). dhi : float or Series. diffuse horizontal irradiance in W/m^2. dni : float or Series. direct normal irradiance in W/m^2. ghi: float or Series. Global irradiance in W/m^2. dni_extra : float or Series. extraterrestrial normal irradiance in W/m^2. solar_zenith : float or Series. apparent (refraction-corrected) zenith angles in decimal degrees. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Sun azimuth angles in decimal degrees. The Azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (e.g. North = 0, East = 90, West = 270). poa_sky_diffuse : float or Series. The diffuse component of the solar radiation on an arbitrarily tilted surface defined by the Reindl model as given in Loutzenhiser et. al (2007) equation 8. SkyDiffuse is the diffuse component ONLY and does not include the ground reflected irradiance or the irradiance due to the beam. SkyDiffuse is a column vector vector with a number of elements equal to the input vector(s).

Notes

The poa_sky_diffuse calculation is generated from the Loutzenhiser et al. (2007) paper, equation 8. Note that I have removed the beam and ground reflectance portion of the equation and this generates ONLY the diffuse radiation from the sky and circumsolar, so the form of the equation varies slightly from equation 8.

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267

[2] Reindl, D.T., Beckmann, W.A., Duffie, J.A., 1990a. Diffuse fraction correlations. Solar Energy 45(1), 1-7.

[3] Reindl, D.T., Beckmann, W.A., Duffie, J.A., 1990b. Evaluation of hourly tilted surface radiation models. Solar Energy 45(1), 9-17.

pvlib.irradiance.total_irrad(surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, apparent_zenith, azimuth, dni, ghi, dhi, dni_extra=None, airmass=None, albedo=0.25, surface_type=None, model='isotropic', model_perez='allsitescomposite1990', **kwargs)[source]

Determine diffuse irradiance from the sky on a tilted surface.

$I_{tot} = I_{beam} + I_{sky} + I_{ground}$
Parameters: surface_tilt : float or Series. Panel tilt from horizontal. surface_azimuth : float or Series. Panel azimuth from north. solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. dni : float or Series Direct Normal Irradiance ghi : float or Series Global horizontal irradiance dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance dni_extra : float or Series Extraterrestrial direct normal irradiance airmass : float or Series Airmass albedo : float Surface albedo surface_type : String Surface type. See grounddiffuse. model : String Irradiance model. model_perez : String See perez. DataFrame with columns ‘poa_global’, ‘poa_direct’, ‘poa_sky_diffuse’, ‘poa_ground_diffuse’.

References

[1] Loutzenhiser P.G. et. al. “Empirical validation of models to compute solar irradiance on inclined surfaces for building energy simulation” 2007, Solar Energy vol. 81. pp. 254-267

## location¶

This module contains the Location class.

class pvlib.location.Location(latitude, longitude, tz='UTC', altitude=0, name=None, **kwargs)[source]

Bases: object

Location objects are convenient containers for latitude, longitude, timezone, and altitude data associated with a particular geographic location. You can also assign a name to a location object.

Location objects have two timezone attributes:

• tz is a IANA timezone string.
• pytz is a pytz timezone object.

Location objects support the print method.

Parameters: latitude : float. Positive is north of the equator. Use decimal degrees notation. longitude : float. Positive is east of the prime meridian. Use decimal degrees notation. tz : str, int, float, or pytz.timezone. See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_tz_database_time_zones for a list of valid time zones. pytz.timezone objects will be converted to strings. ints and floats must be in hours from UTC. alitude : float. Altitude from sea level in meters. name : None or string. Sets the name attribute of the Location object. **kwargs Arbitrary keyword arguments. Included for compatibility, but not used.

pvsystem.PVSystem

classmethod from_tmy(tmy_metadata, tmy_data=None, **kwargs)[source]

Create an object based on a metadata dictionary from tmy2 or tmy3 data readers.

Parameters: tmy_metadata : dict Returned from tmy.readtmy2 or tmy.readtmy3 tmy_data : None or DataFrame Optionally attach the TMY data to this object. Location object (or the child class of Location that you called this method from).
get_airmass(times=None, solar_position=None, model='kastenyoung1989')[source]

Calculate the relative and absolute airmass.

Automatically chooses zenith or apparant zenith depending on the selected model.

Parameters: times : None or DatetimeIndex Only used if solar_position is not provided. solar_position : None or DataFrame DataFrame with with columns ‘apparent_zenith’, ‘zenith’. model : str Relative airmass model airmass : DataFrame Columns are ‘airmass_relative’, ‘airmass_absolute’
get_clearsky(times, model='ineichen', **kwargs)[source]

Calculate the clear sky estimates of GHI, DNI, and/or DHI at this location.

Parameters: times : DatetimeIndex model : str The clear sky model to use. kwargs passed to the relevant function(s). clearsky : DataFrame Column names are: ghi, dni, dhi.
get_solarposition(times, pressure=None, temperature=12, **kwargs)[source]

Uses the solarposition.get_solarposition() function to calculate the solar zenith, azimuth, etc. at this location.

Parameters: times : DatetimeIndex pressure : None, float, or array-like If None, pressure will be calculated using atmosphere.alt2pres() and self.altitude. temperature : None, float, or array-like kwargs passed to :py:func:solarposition.get_solarposition solar_position : DataFrame Columns depend on the method kwarg, but always include zenith and azimuth.

## modelchain¶

The modelchain module contains functions and classes that combine many of the PV power modeling steps. These tools make it easy to get started with pvlib and demonstrate standard ways to use the library. With great power comes great responsibility: users should take the time to read the source code for the module.

class pvlib.modelchain.ModelChain(system, location, orientation_strategy='south_at_latitude_tilt', clearsky_model='ineichen', transposition_model='haydavies', solar_position_method='nrel_numpy', airmass_model='kastenyoung1989', **kwargs)[source]

Bases: object

An experimental class that represents all of the modeling steps necessary for calculating power or energy for a PV system at a given location.

Parameters: system : PVSystem A PVSystem object that represents the connected set of modules, inverters, etc. location : Location A Location object that represents the physical location at which to evaluate the model. orientation_strategy : None or str The strategy for aligning the modules. If not None, sets the surface_azimuth and surface_tilt properties of the system. Allowed strategies include ‘flat’, ‘south_at_latitude_tilt’. clearsky_model : str Passed to location.get_clearsky. transposition_model : str Passed to system.get_irradiance. solar_position_method : str Passed to location.get_solarposition. airmass_model : str Passed to location.get_airmass. **kwargs Arbitrary keyword arguments. Included for compatibility, but not used.
orientation_strategy
run_model(times, irradiance=None, weather=None)[source]

Run the model.

Parameters: times : DatetimeIndex Times at which to evaluate the model. irradiance : None or DataFrame If None, calculates clear sky data. Columns must be ‘dni’, ‘ghi’, ‘dhi’. weather : None or DataFrame If None, assumes air temperature is 20 C and wind speed is 0 m/s. Columns must be ‘wind_speed’, ‘temp_air’. self Assigns attributes: times, solar_position, airmass, irradiance, total_irrad, weather, temps, aoi, dc, ac
pvlib.modelchain.basic_chain(times, latitude, longitude, module_parameters, inverter_parameters, irradiance=None, weather=None, surface_tilt=None, surface_azimuth=None, orientation_strategy=None, transposition_model='haydavies', solar_position_method='nrel_numpy', airmass_model='kastenyoung1989', altitude=None, pressure=None, **kwargs)[source]

An experimental function that computes all of the modeling steps necessary for calculating power or energy for a PV system at a given location.

Parameters: times : DatetimeIndex Times at which to evaluate the model. latitude : float. Positive is north of the equator. Use decimal degrees notation. longitude : float. Positive is east of the prime meridian. Use decimal degrees notation. module_parameters : None, dict or Series Module parameters as defined by the SAPM, CEC, or other. inverter_parameters : None, dict or Series Inverter parameters as defined by the SAPM, CEC, or other. irradiance : None or DataFrame If None, calculates clear sky data. Columns must be ‘dni’, ‘ghi’, ‘dhi’. weather : None or DataFrame If None, assumes air temperature is 20 C and wind speed is 0 m/s. Columns must be ‘wind_speed’, ‘temp_air’. surface_tilt : float or Series Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90) surface_azimuth : float or Series Surface azimuth angles in decimal degrees. The azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (North=0, South=180, East=90, West=270). orientation_strategy : None or str The strategy for aligning the modules. If not None, sets the surface_azimuth and surface_tilt properties of the system. transposition_model : str Passed to system.get_irradiance. solar_position_method : str Passed to location.get_solarposition. airmass_model : str Passed to location.get_airmass. altitude : None or float If None, computed from pressure. Assumed to be 0 m if pressure is also None. pressure : None or float If None, computed from altitude. Assumed to be 101325 Pa if altitude is also None. **kwargs Arbitrary keyword arguments. See code for details. output : (dc, ac) Tuple of DC power (with SAPM parameters) (DataFrame) and AC power (Series).
pvlib.modelchain.get_orientation(strategy, **kwargs)[source]

Determine a PV system’s surface tilt and surface azimuth using a named strategy.

Parameters: strategy: str The orientation strategy. Allowed strategies include ‘flat’, ‘south_at_latitude_tilt’. **kwargs: Strategy-dependent keyword arguments. See code for details. surface_tilt, surface_azimuth

## pvsystem¶

The pvsystem module contains functions for modeling the output and performance of PV modules and inverters.

class pvlib.pvsystem.LocalizedPVSystem(pvsystem=None, location=None, **kwargs)[source]

The LocalizedPVSystem class defines a standard set of installed PV system attributes and modeling functions. This class combines the attributes and methods of the PVSystem and Location classes.

See the PVSystem class for an object model that describes an unlocalized PV system.

class pvlib.pvsystem.PVSystem(surface_tilt=0, surface_azimuth=180, albedo=None, surface_type=None, module=None, module_parameters=None, series_modules=None, parallel_modules=None, inverter=None, inverter_parameters=None, racking_model='open_rack_cell_glassback', **kwargs)[source]

Bases: object

The PVSystem class defines a standard set of PV system attributes and modeling functions. This class describes the collection and interactions of PV system components rather than an installed system on the ground. It is typically used in combination with Location and ModelChain objects.

See the LocalizedPVSystem class for an object model that describes an installed PV system.

The class is complementary to the module-level functions.

The attributes should generally be things that don’t change about the system, such the type of module and the inverter. The instance methods accept arguments for things that do change, such as irradiance and temperature.

Parameters: surface_tilt: float or array-like Tilt angle of the module surface. Up=0, horizon=90. surface_azimuth: float or array-like Azimuth angle of the module surface. North=0, East=90, South=180, West=270. albedo : None, float The ground albedo. If None, will attempt to use surface_type and irradiance.SURFACE_ALBEDOS to lookup albedo. surface_type : None, string The ground surface type. See irradiance.SURFACE_ALBEDOS for valid values. module : None, string The model name of the modules. May be used to look up the module_parameters dictionary via some other method. module_parameters : None, dict or Series Module parameters as defined by the SAPM, CEC, or other. inverter : None, string The model name of the inverters. May be used to look up the inverter_parameters dictionary via some other method. inverter_parameters : None, dict or Series Inverter parameters as defined by the SAPM, CEC, or other. racking_model : None or string Used for cell and module temperature calculations. **kwargs Arbitrary keyword arguments. Included for compatibility, but not used.
ashraeiam(aoi)[source]

Determine the incidence angle modifier using self.module_parameters['b'], aoi, and the ashraeiam() function.

Parameters: aoi : numeric The angle of incidence in degrees. modifier : numeric The AOI modifier.
calcparams_desoto(poa_global, temp_cell, **kwargs)[source]

Use the calcparams_desoto() function, the input parameters and self.module_parameters to calculate the module currents and resistances.

Parameters: poa_global : float or Series The irradiance (in W/m^2) absorbed by the module. temp_cell : float or Series The average cell temperature of cells within a module in C. **kwargs See pvsystem.calcparams_desoto for details See pvsystem.calcparams_desoto for details
get_aoi(solar_zenith, solar_azimuth)[source]

Get the angle of incidence on the system.

Parameters: solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. aoi : Series The angle of incidence
get_irradiance(solar_zenith, solar_azimuth, dni, ghi, dhi, dni_extra=None, airmass=None, model='haydavies', **kwargs)[source]

Uses the irradiance.total_irrad() function to calculate the plane of array irradiance components on a tilted surface defined by self.surface_tilt, self.surface_azimuth, and self.albedo.

Parameters: solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. dni : float or Series Direct Normal Irradiance ghi : float or Series Global horizontal irradiance dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance dni_extra : float or Series Extraterrestrial direct normal irradiance airmass : float or Series Airmass model : String Irradiance model. **kwargs Passed to irradiance.total_irrad(). poa_irradiance : DataFrame Column names are: total, beam, sky, ground.
i_from_v(resistance_shunt, resistance_series, nNsVth, voltage, saturation_current, photocurrent)[source]

Wrapper around the i_from_v() function.

Parameters: See pvsystem.i_from_v for details See pvsystem.i_from_v for details
localize(location=None, latitude=None, longitude=None, **kwargs)[source]

Creates a LocalizedPVSystem object using this object and location data. Must supply either location object or latitude, longitude, and any location kwargs

Parameters: location : None or Location latitude : None or float longitude : None or float **kwargs : see Location localized_system : LocalizedPVSystem
physicaliam(aoi)[source]

Determine the incidence angle modifier using self.module_parameters['K'], self.module_parameters['L'], self.module_parameters['n'], aoi, and the physicaliam() function.

Parameters: See pvsystem.physicaliam for details See pvsystem.physicaliam for details
sapm(poa_direct, poa_diffuse, temp_cell, airmass_absolute, aoi, **kwargs)[source]

Use the sapm() function, the input parameters, and self.module_parameters to calculate Voc, Isc, Ix, Ixx, Vmp/Imp.

Parameters: poa_direct : Series The direct irradiance incident upon the module (W/m^2). poa_diffuse : Series The diffuse irradiance incident on module. temp_cell : Series The cell temperature (degrees C). airmass_absolute : Series Absolute airmass. aoi : Series Angle of incidence (degrees). **kwargs See pvsystem.sapm for details See pvsystem.sapm for details
sapm_celltemp(irrad, wind, temp)[source]

Uses sapm_celltemp() to calculate module and cell temperatures based on self.racking_model and the input parameters.

Parameters: See pvsystem.sapm_celltemp for details See pvsystem.sapm_celltemp for details
singlediode(photocurrent, saturation_current, resistance_series, resistance_shunt, nNsVth)[source]

Wrapper around the singlediode() function.

Parameters: See pvsystem.singlediode for details See pvsystem.singlediode for details
snlinverter(v_dc, p_dc)[source]

Uses snlinverter() to calculate AC power based on self.inverter_parameters and the input parameters.

Parameters: See pvsystem.snlinverter for details See pvsystem.snlinverter for details
pvlib.pvsystem.ashraeiam(b, aoi)[source]

Determine the incidence angle modifier using the ASHRAE transmission model.

ashraeiam calculates the incidence angle modifier as developed in [1], and adopted by ASHRAE (American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers) [2]. The model has been used by model programs such as PVSyst [3].

Note: For incident angles near 90 degrees, this model has a discontinuity which has been addressed in this function.

Parameters: b : float A parameter to adjust the modifier as a function of angle of incidence. Typical values are on the order of 0.05 [3]. aoi : Series The angle of incidence between the module normal vector and the sun-beam vector in degrees. IAM : Series The incident angle modifier calculated as 1-b*(sec(aoi)-1) as described in [2,3]. Returns nan for all abs(aoi) >= 90 and for all IAM values that would be less than 0.

irradiance.aoi, physicaliam

References

[1] Souka A.F., Safwat H.H., “Determindation of the optimum orientations for the double exposure flat-plate collector and its reflections”. Solar Energy vol .10, pp 170-174. 1966.

[2] ASHRAE standard 93-77

[3] PVsyst Contextual Help. http://files.pvsyst.com/help/index.html?iam_loss.htm retrieved on September 10, 2012

pvlib.pvsystem.calcparams_desoto(poa_global, temp_cell, alpha_isc, module_parameters, EgRef, dEgdT, M=1, irrad_ref=1000, temp_ref=25)[source]

Applies the temperature and irradiance corrections to inputs for singlediode.

Applies the temperature and irradiance corrections to the IL, I0, Rs, Rsh, and a parameters at reference conditions (IL_ref, I0_ref, etc.) according to the De Soto et. al description given in [1]. The results of this correction procedure may be used in a single diode model to determine IV curves at irradiance = S, cell temperature = Tcell.

Parameters: poa_global : float or Series The irradiance (in W/m^2) absorbed by the module. temp_cell : float or Series The average cell temperature of cells within a module in C. alpha_isc : float The short-circuit current temperature coefficient of the module in units of 1/C. module_parameters : dict Parameters describing PV module performance at reference conditions according to DeSoto’s paper. Parameters may be generated or found by lookup. For ease of use, retrieve_sam can automatically generate a dict based on the most recent SAM CEC module database. The module_parameters dict must contain the following 5 fields: a_ref - modified diode ideality factor parameter at reference conditions (units of eV), a_ref can be calculated from the usual diode ideality factor (n), number of cells in series (Ns), and cell temperature (Tcell) per equation (2) in [1]. I_L_ref - Light-generated current (or photocurrent) in amperes at reference conditions. This value is referred to as Iph in some literature. I_o_ref - diode reverse saturation current in amperes, under reference conditions. R_sh_ref - shunt resistance under reference conditions (ohms). R_s - series resistance under reference conditions (ohms). EgRef : float The energy bandgap at reference temperature (in eV). 1.121 eV for silicon. EgRef must be >0. dEgdT : float The temperature dependence of the energy bandgap at SRC (in 1/C). May be either a scalar value (e.g. -0.0002677 as in [1]) or a DataFrame of dEgdT values corresponding to each input condition (this may be useful if dEgdT is a function of temperature). M : float or Series (optional, default=1) An optional airmass modifier, if omitted, M is given a value of 1, which assumes absolute (pressure corrected) airmass = 1.5. In this code, M is equal to M/Mref as described in [1] (i.e. Mref is assumed to be 1). Source [1] suggests that an appropriate value for M as a function absolute airmass (AMa) may be: >>> M = np.polyval([-0.000126, 0.002816, -0.024459, 0.086257, 0.918093], ... AMa)  M may be a Series. irrad_ref : float (optional, default=1000) Reference irradiance in W/m^2. temp_ref : float (optional, default=25) Reference cell temperature in C. Tuple of the following results: photocurrent : float or Series Light-generated current in amperes at irradiance=S and cell temperature=Tcell. saturation_current : float or Series Diode saturation curent in amperes at irradiance S and cell temperature Tcell. resistance_series : float Series resistance in ohms at irradiance S and cell temperature Tcell. resistance_shunt : float or Series Shunt resistance in ohms at irradiance S and cell temperature Tcell. nNsVth : float or Series Modified diode ideality factor at irradiance S and cell temperature Tcell. Note that in source [1] nNsVth = a (equation 2). nNsVth is the product of the usual diode ideality factor (n), the number of series-connected cells in the module (Ns), and the thermal voltage of a cell in the module (Vth) at a cell temperature of Tcell.

Notes

If the reference parameters in the ModuleParameters struct are read from a database or library of parameters (e.g. System Advisor Model), it is important to use the same EgRef and dEgdT values that were used to generate the reference parameters, regardless of the actual bandgap characteristics of the semiconductor. For example, in the case of the System Advisor Model library, created as described in [3], EgRef and dEgdT for all modules were 1.121 and -0.0002677, respectively.

This table of reference bandgap energies (EgRef), bandgap energy temperature dependence (dEgdT), and “typical” airmass response (M) is provided purely as reference to those who may generate their own reference module parameters (a_ref, IL_ref, I0_ref, etc.) based upon the various PV semiconductors. Again, we stress the importance of using identical EgRef and dEgdT when generation reference parameters and modifying the reference parameters (for irradiance, temperature, and airmass) per DeSoto’s equations.

Silicon (Si):
• EgRef = 1.121
• dEgdT = -0.0002677
>>> M = np.polyval([-1.26E-4, 2.816E-3, -0.024459, 0.086257, 0.918093],
...                AMa)


Source: [1]

• EgRef = 1.475
• dEgdT = -0.0003
>>> M = np.polyval([-2.46E-5, 9.607E-4, -0.0134, 0.0716, 0.9196],
...                AMa)


Source: [4]

Copper Indium diSelenide (CIS):
• EgRef = 1.010
• dEgdT = -0.00011
>>> M = np.polyval([-3.74E-5, 0.00125, -0.01462, 0.0718, 0.9210],
...                AMa)


Source: [4]

Copper Indium Gallium diSelenide (CIGS):
• EgRef = 1.15
• dEgdT = ????
>>> M = np.polyval([-9.07E-5, 0.0022, -0.0202, 0.0652, 0.9417],
...                AMa)


Source: Wikipedia

Gallium Arsenide (GaAs):
• EgRef = 1.424
• dEgdT = -0.000433
• M = unknown

Source: [4]

References

[1] W. De Soto et al., “Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance”, Solar Energy, vol 80, pp. 78-88, 2006.

[2] System Advisor Model web page. https://sam.nrel.gov.

[3] A. Dobos, “An Improved Coefficient Calculator for the California Energy Commission 6 Parameter Photovoltaic Module Model”, Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, vol 134, 2012.

[4] O. Madelung, “Semiconductors: Data Handbook, 3rd ed.” ISBN 3-540-40488-0

pvlib.pvsystem.i_from_v(resistance_shunt, resistance_series, nNsVth, voltage, saturation_current, photocurrent)[source]

Calculates current from voltage per Eq 2 Jain and Kapoor 2004 [1].

Parameters: resistance_shunt : float or Series Shunt resistance in ohms under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated Rsh. resistance_series : float or Series Series resistance in ohms under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated Rs. nNsVth : float or Series The product of three components. 1) The usual diode ideal factor (n), 2) the number of cells in series (Ns), and 3) the cell thermal voltage under the desired IV curve conditions (Vth). The thermal voltage of the cell (in volts) may be calculated as k*temp_cell/q, where k is Boltzmann’s constant (J/K), temp_cell is the temperature of the p-n junction in Kelvin, and q is the charge of an electron (coulombs). voltage : float or Series The voltage in Volts under desired IV curve conditions. saturation_current : float or Series Diode saturation current in amperes under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated I_0. photocurrent : float or Series Light-generated current (photocurrent) in amperes under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated I_L. current : np.array

References

[1] A. Jain, A. Kapoor, “Exact analytical solutions of the parameters of real solar cells using Lambert W-function”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 81 (2004) 269-277.

pvlib.pvsystem.physicaliam(K, L, n, aoi)[source]

Determine the incidence angle modifier using refractive index, glazing thickness, and extinction coefficient

physicaliam calculates the incidence angle modifier as described in De Soto et al. “Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance”, section 3. The calculation is based upon a physical model of absorbtion and transmission through a cover. Required information includes, incident angle, cover extinction coefficient, cover thickness

Note: The authors of this function believe that eqn. 14 in [1] is incorrect. This function uses the following equation in its place: theta_r = arcsin(1/n * sin(theta))

Parameters: K : float The glazing extinction coefficient in units of 1/meters. Reference [1] indicates that a value of 4 is reasonable for “water white” glass. K must be a numeric scalar or vector with all values >=0. If K is a vector, it must be the same size as all other input vectors. L : float The glazing thickness in units of meters. Reference [1] indicates that 0.002 meters (2 mm) is reasonable for most glass-covered PV panels. L must be a numeric scalar or vector with all values >=0. If L is a vector, it must be the same size as all other input vectors. n : float The effective index of refraction (unitless). Reference [1] indicates that a value of 1.526 is acceptable for glass. n must be a numeric scalar or vector with all values >=0. If n is a vector, it must be the same size as all other input vectors. aoi : Series The angle of incidence between the module normal vector and the sun-beam vector in degrees. IAM : float or Series The incident angle modifier as specified in eqns. 14-16 of [1]. IAM is a column vector with the same number of elements as the largest input vector. Theta must be a numeric scalar or vector. For any values of theta where abs(aoi)>90, IAM is set to 0. For any values of aoi where -90 < aoi < 0, theta is set to abs(aoi) and evaluated.

getaoi, ephemeris, spa, ashraeiam

References

[1] W. De Soto et al., “Improvement and validation of a model for photovoltaic array performance”, Solar Energy, vol 80, pp. 78-88, 2006.

[2] Duffie, John A. & Beckman, William A.. (2006). Solar Engineering of Thermal Processes, third edition. [Books24x7 version] Available from http://common.books24x7.com/toc.aspx?bookid=17160.

pvlib.pvsystem.retrieve_sam(name=None, samfile=None)[source]

Retrieve latest module and inverter info from SAM website.

This function will retrieve either:

• CEC module database
• Sandia Module database
• CEC Inverter database

and return it as a pandas dataframe.

Parameters: name : String Name can be one of: ‘CECMod’ - returns the CEC module database ‘CECInverter’ - returns the CEC Inverter database ‘SandiaInverter’ - returns the CEC Inverter database (CEC is only current inverter db available; tag kept for backwards compatibility) ‘SandiaMod’ - returns the Sandia Module database samfile : String Absolute path to the location of local versions of the SAM file. If file is specified, the latest versions of the SAM database will not be downloaded. The selected file must be in .csv format. If set to ‘select’, a dialogue will open allowing the user to navigate to the appropriate page. A DataFrame containing all the elements of the desired database. Each column represents a module or inverter, and a specific dataset can be retrieved by the command

Examples

>>> from pvlib import pvsystem
>>> invdb = pvsystem.retrieve_sam(name='CECInverter')
>>> inverter = invdb.AE_Solar_Energy__AE6_0__277V__277V__CEC_2012_
>>> inverter
Vac           277.000000
Paco         6000.000000
Pdco         6165.670000
Vdco          361.123000
Pso            36.792300
C0             -0.000002
C1             -0.000047
C2             -0.001861
C3              0.000721
Pnt             0.070000
Vdcmax        600.000000
Idcmax         32.000000
Mppt_low      200.000000
Mppt_high     500.000000
Name: AE_Solar_Energy__AE6_0__277V__277V__CEC_2012_, dtype: float64

pvlib.pvsystem.sapm(module, poa_direct, poa_diffuse, temp_cell, airmass_absolute, aoi)[source]

The Sandia PV Array Performance Model (SAPM) generates 5 points on a PV module’s I-V curve (Voc, Isc, Ix, Ixx, Vmp/Imp) according to SAND2004-3535. Assumes a reference cell temperature of 25 C.

Parameters: module : Series or dict A DataFrame defining the SAPM performance parameters. See the notes section for more details. poa_direct : Series The direct irradiance incident upon the module (W/m^2). poa_diffuse : Series The diffuse irradiance incident on module. temp_cell : Series The cell temperature (degrees C). airmass_absolute : Series Absolute airmass. aoi : Series Angle of incidence (degrees). A DataFrame with the columns: i_sc : Short-circuit current (A) I_mp : Current at the maximum-power point (A) v_oc : Open-circuit voltage (V) v_mp : Voltage at maximum-power point (V) p_mp : Power at maximum-power point (W) i_x : Current at module V = 0.5Voc, defines 4th point on I-V curve for modeling curve shape i_xx : Current at module V = 0.5(Voc+Vmp), defines 5th point on I-V curve for modeling curve shape effective_irradiance : Effective irradiance

Notes

The coefficients from SAPM which are required in module are listed in the following table.

The modules in the Sandia module database contain these coefficients, but the modules in the CEC module database do not. Both databases can be accessed using retrieve_sam().

Key Description
A0-A4 The airmass coefficients used in calculating effective irradiance
B0-B5 The angle of incidence coefficients used in calculating effective irradiance
C0-C7 The empirically determined coefficients relating Imp, Vmp, Ix, and Ixx to effective irradiance
Isco Short circuit current at reference condition (amps)
Impo Maximum power current at reference condition (amps)
Aisc Short circuit current temperature coefficient at reference condition (1/C)
Aimp Maximum power current temperature coefficient at reference condition (1/C)
Bvoco Open circuit voltage temperature coefficient at reference condition (V/C)
Mbvoc Coefficient providing the irradiance dependence for the BetaVoc temperature coefficient at reference irradiance (V/C)
Bvmpo Maximum power voltage temperature coefficient at reference condition
Mbvmp Coefficient providing the irradiance dependence for the BetaVmp temperature coefficient at reference irradiance (V/C)
N Empirically determined “diode factor” (dimensionless)
Cells_in_Series Number of cells in series in a module’s cell string(s)
IXO Ix at reference conditions
IXXO Ixx at reference conditions
FD Fraction of diffuse irradiance used by module

References

[1] King, D. et al, 2004, “Sandia Photovoltaic Array Performance Model”, SAND Report 3535, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

pvlib.pvsystem.sapm_celltemp(poa_global, wind_speed, temp_air, model='open_rack_cell_glassback')[source]

Estimate cell and module temperatures per the Sandia PV Array Performance Model (SAPM, SAND2004-3535), from the incident irradiance, wind speed, ambient temperature, and SAPM module parameters.

Parameters: poa_global : float or Series Total incident irradiance in W/m^2. wind_speed : float or Series Wind speed in m/s at a height of 10 meters. temp_air : float or Series Ambient dry bulb temperature in degrees C. model : string, list, or dict Model to be used. If string, can be: ‘open_rack_cell_glassback’ (default) ‘roof_mount_cell_glassback’ ‘open_rack_cell_polymerback’ ‘insulated_back_polymerback’ ‘open_rack_polymer_thinfilm_steel’ ‘22x_concentrator_tracker’ If dict, supply the following parameters (if list, in the following order): a : floatSAPM module parameter for establishing the upper limit for module temperature at low wind speeds and high solar irradiance. b : floatSAPM module parameter for establishing the rate at which the module temperature drops as wind speed increases (see SAPM eqn. 11). deltaT : floatSAPM module parameter giving the temperature difference between the cell and module back surface at the reference irradiance, E0. DataFrame with columns ‘temp_cell’ and ‘temp_module’. Values in degrees C.

References

[1] King, D. et al, 2004, “Sandia Photovoltaic Array Performance Model”, SAND Report 3535, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM.

pvlib.pvsystem.singlediode(module, photocurrent, saturation_current, resistance_series, resistance_shunt, nNsVth)[source]

Solve the single-diode model to obtain a photovoltaic IV curve.

Singlediode solves the single diode equation [1]

$I = IL - I0*[exp((V+I*Rs)/(nNsVth))-1] - (V + I*Rs)/Rsh$

for I and V when given IL, I0, Rs, Rsh, and nNsVth (nNsVth = n*Ns*Vth) which are described later. Returns a DataFrame which contains the 5 points on the I-V curve specified in SAND2004-3535 [3]. If all IL, I0, Rs, Rsh, and nNsVth are scalar, a single curve will be returned, if any are Series (of the same length), multiple IV curves will be calculated.

The input parameters can be calculated using calcparams_desoto from meteorological data.

Parameters: module : DataFrame A DataFrame defining the SAPM performance parameters. photocurrent : float or Series Light-generated current (photocurrent) in amperes under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated I_L. saturation_current : float or Series Diode saturation current in amperes under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated I_0. resistance_series : float or Series Series resistance in ohms under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated Rs. resistance_shunt : float or Series Shunt resistance in ohms under desired IV curve conditions. Often abbreviated Rsh. nNsVth : float or Series The product of three components. 1) The usual diode ideal factor (n), 2) the number of cells in series (Ns), and 3) the cell thermal voltage under the desired IV curve conditions (Vth). The thermal voltage of the cell (in volts) may be calculated as k*temp_cell/q, where k is Boltzmann’s constant (J/K), temp_cell is the temperature of the p-n junction in Kelvin, and q is the charge of an electron (coulombs). If photocurrent is a Series, a DataFrame with the following columns. All columns have the same number of rows as the largest input DataFrame. If photocurrent is a scalar, a dict with the following keys. i_sc - short circuit current in amperes. v_oc - open circuit voltage in volts. i_mp - current at maximum power point in amperes. v_mp - voltage at maximum power point in volts. p_mp - power at maximum power point in watts. i_x - current, in amperes, at v = 0.5*v_oc. i_xx - current, in amperes, at V = 0.5*(v_oc+v_mp).

Notes

The solution employed to solve the implicit diode equation utilizes the Lambert W function to obtain an explicit function of V=f(i) and I=f(V) as shown in [2].

References

[1] S.R. Wenham, M.A. Green, M.E. Watt, “Applied Photovoltaics” ISBN 0 86758 909 4

[2] A. Jain, A. Kapoor, “Exact analytical solutions of the parameters of real solar cells using Lambert W-function”, Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 81 (2004) 269-277.

[3] D. King et al, “Sandia Photovoltaic Array Performance Model”, SAND2004-3535, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM

pvlib.pvsystem.snlinverter(inverter, v_dc, p_dc)[source]

Converts DC power and voltage to AC power using Sandia’s Grid-Connected PV Inverter model.

Determines the AC power output of an inverter given the DC voltage, DC power, and appropriate Sandia Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter Model parameters. The output, ac_power, is clipped at the maximum power output, and gives a negative power during low-input power conditions, but does NOT account for maximum power point tracking voltage windows nor maximum current or voltage limits on the inverter.

Parameters:

inverter : DataFrame

A DataFrame defining the inverter to be used, giving the inverter performance parameters according to the Sandia Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverter Model (SAND 2007-5036) [1]. A set of inverter performance parameters are provided with pvlib, or may be generated from a System Advisor Model (SAM) [2] library using retrievesam.

Required DataFrame columns are:

Column Description
Pac0 AC-power output from inverter based on input power and voltage (W)
Pdc0 DC-power input to inverter, typically assumed to be equal to the PV array maximum power (W)
Vdc0 DC-voltage level at which the AC-power rating is achieved at the reference operating condition (V)
Ps0 DC-power required to start the inversion process, or self-consumption by inverter, strongly influences inverter efficiency at low power levels (W)
C0 Parameter defining the curvature (parabolic) of the relationship between ac-power and dc-power at the reference operating condition, default value of zero gives a linear relationship (1/W)
C1 Empirical coefficient allowing Pdco to vary linearly with dc-voltage input, default value is zero (1/V)
C2 Empirical coefficient allowing Pso to vary linearly with dc-voltage input, default value is zero (1/V)
C3 Empirical coefficient allowing Co to vary linearly with dc-voltage input, default value is zero (1/V)
Pnt AC-power consumed by inverter at night (night tare) to maintain circuitry required to sense PV array voltage (W)

v_dc : float or Series

DC voltages, in volts, which are provided as input to the inverter. Vdc must be >= 0.

p_dc : float or Series

A scalar or DataFrame of DC powers, in watts, which are provided as input to the inverter. Pdc must be >= 0.

Returns:

ac_power : float or Series

Modeled AC power output given the input DC voltage, Vdc, and input DC power, Pdc. When ac_power would be greater than Pac0, it is set to Pac0 to represent inverter “clipping”. When ac_power would be less than Ps0 (startup power required), then ac_power is set to -1*abs(Pnt) to represent nightly power losses. ac_power is not adjusted for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) voltage windows or maximum current limits of the inverter.

References

[1] SAND2007-5036, “Performance Model for Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Inverters by D. King, S. Gonzalez, G. Galbraith, W. Boyson

[2] System Advisor Model web page. https://sam.nrel.gov.

pvlib.pvsystem.systemdef(meta, surface_tilt, surface_azimuth, albedo, series_modules, parallel_modules)[source]

Generates a dict of system parameters used throughout a simulation.

Parameters:

meta : dict

meta dict either generated from a TMY file using readtmy2 or readtmy3, or a dict containing at least the following fields:

meta field format description
meta.altitude Float site elevation
meta.latitude Float site latitude
meta.longitude Float site longitude
meta.Name String site name
meta.State String state
meta.TZ Float timezone

surface_tilt : float or Series

Surface tilt angles in decimal degrees. The tilt angle is defined as degrees from horizontal (e.g. surface facing up = 0, surface facing horizon = 90)

surface_azimuth : float or Series

Surface azimuth angles in decimal degrees. The azimuth convention is defined as degrees east of north (North=0, South=180, East=90, West=270).

albedo : float or Series

Ground reflectance, typically 0.1-0.4 for surfaces on Earth (land), may increase over snow, ice, etc. May also be known as the reflection coefficient. Must be >=0 and <=1.

series_modules : int

Number of modules connected in series in a string.

parallel_modules : int

Number of strings connected in parallel.

Returns:

Result : dict

A dict with the following fields.

• ‘surface_tilt’
• ‘surface_azimuth’
• ‘albedo’
• ‘series_modules’
• ‘parallel_modules’
• ‘latitude’
• ‘longitude’
• ‘tz’
• ‘name’
• ‘altitude’

## solarposition¶

Calculate the solar position using a variety of methods/packages.

pvlib.solarposition.calc_time(lower_bound, upper_bound, latitude, longitude, attribute, value, altitude=0, pressure=101325, temperature=12, xtol=1e-12)[source]

Calculate the time between lower_bound and upper_bound where the attribute is equal to value. Uses PyEphem for solar position calculations.

Parameters: lower_bound : datetime.datetime upper_bound : datetime.datetime latitude : float longitude : float attribute : str The attribute of a pyephem.Sun object that you want to solve for. Likely options are ‘alt’ and ‘az’ (which must be given in radians). value : int or float The value of the attribute to solve for altitude : float Distance above sea level. pressure : int or float, optional Air pressure in Pascals. Set to 0 for no atmospheric correction. temperature : int or float, optional Air temperature in degrees C. xtol : float, optional The allowed error in the result from value datetime.datetime ValueError If the value is not contained between the bounds. AttributeError If the given attribute is not an attribute of a PyEphem.Sun object.
pvlib.solarposition.ephemeris(time, latitude, longitude, pressure=101325, temperature=12)[source]

Python-native solar position calculator. The accuracy of this code is not guaranteed. Consider using the built-in spa_c code or the PyEphem library.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex latitude : float longitude : float pressure : float or Series Ambient pressure (Pascals) temperature : float or Series Ambient temperature (C) DataFrame with the following columns: apparent_elevation : apparent sun elevation accounting for atmospheric refraction. elevation : actual elevation (not accounting for refraction) of the sun in decimal degrees, 0 = on horizon. The complement of the zenith angle. azimuth : Azimuth of the sun in decimal degrees East of North. This is the complement of the apparent zenith angle. apparent_zenith : apparent sun zenith accounting for atmospheric refraction. zenith : Solar zenith angle solar_time : Solar time in decimal hours (solar noon is 12.00).

References

Grover Hughes’ class and related class materials on Engineering Astronomy at Sandia National Laboratories, 1985.

pvlib.solarposition.get_solarposition(time, latitude, longitude, altitude=None, pressure=None, method='nrel_numpy', temperature=12, **kwargs)[source]

A convenience wrapper for the solar position calculators.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex latitude : float longitude : float altitude : None or float If None, computed from pressure. Assumed to be 0 m if pressure is also None. pressure : None or float If None, computed from altitude. Assumed to be 101325 Pa if altitude is also None. method : string ‘pyephem’ uses the PyEphem package: pyephem() ‘nrel_c’ uses the NREL SPA C code [3]: spa_c() ‘nrel_numpy’ uses an implementation of the NREL SPA algorithm described in [1] (default): spa_python() ‘nrel_numba’ uses an implementation of the NREL SPA algorithm described in [1], but also compiles the code first: spa_python() ‘ephemeris’ uses the pvlib ephemeris code: ephemeris() temperature : float Degrees C. Other keywords are passed to the underlying solar position function.

References

[1] I. Reda and A. Andreas, Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications. Solar Energy, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 577-589, 2004.

[2] I. Reda and A. Andreas, Corrigendum to Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications. Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6, p. 838, 2007.

[3] NREL SPA code: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codesandalgorithms/spa/

pvlib.solarposition.get_sun_rise_set_transit(time, latitude, longitude, how='numpy', delta_t=None, numthreads=4)[source]

Calculate the sunrise, sunset, and sun transit times using the NREL SPA algorithm described in [1].

If numba is installed, the functions can be compiled to machine code and the function can be multithreaded. Without numba, the function evaluates via numpy with a slight performance hit.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex Only the date part is used latitude : float longitude : float delta_t : float, optional Difference between terrestrial time and UT1. By default, use USNO historical data and predictions how : str, optional Options are ‘numpy’ or ‘numba’. If numba >= 0.17.0 is installed, how=’numba’ will compile the spa functions to machine code and run them multithreaded. numthreads : int, optional Number of threads to use if how == ‘numba’. DataFrame The DataFrame will have the following columns: sunrise, sunset, transit

References

[1] Reda, I., Andreas, A., 2003. Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications. Technical report: NREL/TP-560- 34302. Golden, USA, http://www.nrel.gov.

pvlib.solarposition.pyephem(time, latitude, longitude, altitude=0, pressure=101325, temperature=12)[source]

Calculate the solar position using the PyEphem package.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex Localized or UTC. latitude : float longitude : float altitude : float distance above sea level. pressure : int or float, optional air pressure in Pascals. temperature : int or float, optional air temperature in degrees C. DataFrame The DataFrame will have the following columns: apparent_elevation, elevation, apparent_azimuth, azimuth, apparent_zenith, zenith.
pvlib.solarposition.pyephem_earthsun_distance(time)[source]

Calculates the distance from the earth to the sun using pyephem.

Parameters: time : pd.DatetimeIndex pd.Series. Earth-sun distance in AU.
pvlib.solarposition.spa_c(time, latitude, longitude, pressure=101325, altitude=0, temperature=12, delta_t=67.0, raw_spa_output=False)[source]

Calculate the solar position using the C implementation of the NREL SPA code

The source files for this code are located in ‘./spa_c_files/’, along with a README file which describes how the C code is wrapped in Python. Due to license restrictions, the C code must be downloaded seperately and used in accordance with it’s license.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex Localized or UTC. latitude : float longitude : float pressure : float Pressure in Pascals altitude : float Elevation above sea level. temperature : float Temperature in C delta_t : float Difference between terrestrial time and UT1. USNO has previous values and predictions. raw_spa_output : bool If true, returns the raw SPA output. DataFrame The DataFrame will have the following columns: elevation, azimuth, zenith, apparent_elevation, apparent_zenith.

References

NREL SPA code: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/codesandalgorithms/spa/

pvlib.solarposition.spa_python(time, latitude, longitude, altitude=0, pressure=101325, temperature=12, delta_t=None, atmos_refract=None, how='numpy', numthreads=4)[source]

Calculate the solar position using a python implementation of the NREL SPA algorithm described in [1].

If numba is installed, the functions can be compiled to machine code and the function can be multithreaded. Without numba, the function evaluates via numpy with a slight performance hit.

Parameters: time : pandas.DatetimeIndex Localized or UTC. latitude : float longitude : float altitude : float pressure : int or float, optional avg. yearly air pressure in Pascals. temperature : int or float, optional avg. yearly air temperature in degrees C. delta_t : float, optional Difference between terrestrial time and UT1. The USNO has historical and forecasted delta_t [3]. atmos_refrac : float, optional The approximate atmospheric refraction (in degrees) at sunrise and sunset. how : str, optional Options are ‘numpy’ or ‘numba’. If numba >= 0.17.0 is installed, how=’numba’ will compile the spa functions to machine code and run them multithreaded. numthreads : int, optional Number of threads to use if how == ‘numba’. DataFrame The DataFrame will have the following columns: apparent_zenith (degrees), zenith (degrees), apparent_elevation (degrees), elevation (degrees), azimuth (degrees), equation_of_time (minutes).

References

[1] I. Reda and A. Andreas, Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications. Solar Energy, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 577-589, 2004.

[2] I. Reda and A. Andreas, Corrigendum to Solar position algorithm for solar radiation applications. Solar Energy, vol. 81, no. 6, p. 838, 2007.

## tmy¶

Import functions for TMY2 and TMY3 data files.

pvlib.tmy.readtmy2(filename)[source]

Read a TMY2 file in to a DataFrame.

Note that values contained in the DataFrame are unchanged from the TMY2 file (i.e. units are retained). Time/Date and location data imported from the TMY2 file have been modified to a “friendlier” form conforming to modern conventions (e.g. N latitude is postive, E longitude is positive, the “24th” hour of any day is technically the “0th” hour of the next day). In the case of any discrepencies between this documentation and the TMY2 User’s Manual [1], the TMY2 User’s Manual takes precedence.

Parameters: filename : None or string If None, attempts to use a Tkinter file browser. A string can be a relative file path, absolute file path, or url. Tuple of the form (data, metadata). data : DataFrame A dataframe with the columns described in the table below. For a more detailed descriptions of each component, please consult the TMY2 User’s Manual ([1]), especially tables 3-1 through 3-6, and Appendix B. metadata : dict The site metadata available in the file.

Notes

The returned structures have the following fields.

key description
WBAN Site identifier code (WBAN number)
City Station name
State Station state 2 letter designator
TZ Hours from Greenwich
latitude Latitude in decimal degrees
longitude Longitude in decimal degrees
altitude Site elevation in meters
TMYData field description
index Pandas timeseries object containing timestamps
year
month
day
hour
ETR Extraterrestrial horizontal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
ETRN Extraterrestrial normal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
GHI Direct and diffuse horizontal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
GHISource See [1], Table 3-3
GHIUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
DNI Amount of direct normal radiation (modeled) recv’d during 60 mintues prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
DNISource See [1], Table 3-3
DNIUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
DHI Amount of diffuse horizontal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
DHISource See [1], Table 3-3
DHIUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
GHillum Avg. total horizontal illuminance recv’d during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, units of 100 lux (e.g. value of 50 = 5000 lux)
GHillumSource See [1], Table 3-3
GHillumUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
DNillum Avg. direct normal illuminance recv’d during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, units of 100 lux
DNillumSource See [1], Table 3-3
DNillumUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
DHillum Avg. horizontal diffuse illuminance recv’d during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, units of 100 lux
DHillumSource See [1], Table 3-3
DHillumUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
Zenithlum Avg. luminance at the sky’s zenith during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, units of 10 Cd/m^2 (e.g. value of 700 = 7,000 Cd/m^2)
ZenithlumSource See [1], Table 3-3
ZenithlumUncertainty See [1], Table 3-4
TotCld Amount of sky dome covered by clouds or obscuring phenonema at time stamp, tenths of sky
TotCldSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TotCldUnertainty See [1], Table 3-6
OpqCld Amount of sky dome covered by clouds or obscuring phenonema that prevent observing the sky at time stamp, tenths of sky
OpqCldSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
OpqCldUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
DryBulb Dry bulb temperature at the time indicated, in tenths of degree C (e.g. 352 = 35.2 C).
DryBulbSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
DryBulbUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
DewPoint Dew-point temperature at the time indicated, in tenths of degree C (e.g. 76 = 7.6 C).
DewPointSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
DewPointUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
RHum Relative humidity at the time indicated, percent
RHumSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
RHumUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
Pressure Station pressure at the time indicated, 1 mbar
PressureSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
PressureUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
Wdir Wind direction at time indicated, degrees from east of north (360 = 0 = north; 90 = East; 0 = undefined,calm)
WdirSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
WdirUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
Wspd Wind speed at the time indicated, in tenths of meters/second (e.g. 212 = 21.2 m/s)
WspdSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
WspdUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
Hvis Distance to discernable remote objects at time indicated (7777=unlimited, 9999=missing data), in tenths of kilometers (e.g. 341 = 34.1 km).
HvisSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
HvisUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
CeilHgt Height of cloud base above local terrain (7777=unlimited, 88888=cirroform, 99999=missing data), in meters
CeilHgtSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
CeilHgtUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
Pwat Total precipitable water contained in a column of unit cross section from Earth to top of atmosphere, in millimeters
PwatSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
PwatUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
AOD The broadband aerosol optical depth (broadband turbidity) in thousandths on the day indicated (e.g. 114 = 0.114)
AODSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
AODUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
SnowDepth Snow depth in centimeters on the day indicated, (999 = missing data).
SnowDepthSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
SnowDepthUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
LastSnowfall Number of days since last snowfall (maximum value of 88, where 88 = 88 or greater days; 99 = missing data)
LastSnowfallSource See [1], Table 3-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
LastSnowfallUncertainty See [1], Table 3-6
PresentWeather See [1], Appendix B, an 8760x1 cell array of strings. Each string contains 10 numeric values. The string can be parsed to determine each of 10 observed weather metrics.

References

[1] Marion, W and Urban, K. “Wilcox, S and Marion, W. “User’s Manual for TMY2s”. NREL 1995.

pvlib.tmy.readtmy3(filename=None, coerce_year=None, recolumn=True)[source]

Read a TMY3 file in to a pandas dataframe.

Note that values contained in the metadata dictionary are unchanged from the TMY3 file (i.e. units are retained). In the case of any discrepencies between this documentation and the TMY3 User’s Manual [1], the TMY3 User’s Manual takes precedence.

Parameters: filename : None or string If None, attempts to use a Tkinter file browser. A string can be a relative file path, absolute file path, or url. coerce_year : None or int If supplied, the year of the data will be set to this value. recolumn : bool If True, apply standard names to TMY3 columns. Typically this results in stripping the units from the column name. Tuple of the form (data, metadata). data : DataFrame A pandas dataframe with the columns described in the table below. For more detailed descriptions of each component, please consult the TMY3 User’s Manual ([1]), especially tables 1-1 through 1-6. metadata : dict The site metadata available in the file.

Notes

The returned structures have the following fields.

key format description
altitude Float site elevation
latitude Float site latitudeitude
longitude Float site longitudeitude
Name String site name
State String state
TZ Float UTC offset
USAF Int USAF identifier
TMYData field description
TMYData.Index A pandas datetime index. NOTE, the index is currently timezone unaware, and times are set to local standard time (daylight savings is not indcluded)
TMYData.ETR Extraterrestrial horizontal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
TMYData.ETRN Extraterrestrial normal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
TMYData.GHI Direct and diffuse horizontal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
TMYData.GHISource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.GHIUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [2]
TMYData.DNI Amount of direct normal radiation (modeled) recv’d during 60 mintues prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
TMYData.DNISource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.DNIUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [2]
TMYData.DHI Amount of diffuse horizontal radiation recv’d during 60 minutes prior to timestamp, Wh/m^2
TMYData.DHISource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.DHIUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [2]
TMYData.GHillum Avg. total horizontal illuminance recv’d during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, lx
TMYData.GHillumSource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.GHillumUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [2]
TMYData.DNillum Avg. direct normal illuminance recv’d during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, lx
TMYData.DNillumSource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.DNillumUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [2]
TMYData.DHillum Avg. horizontal diffuse illuminance recv’d during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, lx
TMYData.DHillumSource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.DHillumUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [2]
TMYData.Zenithlum Avg. luminance at the sky’s zenith during the 60 minutes prior to timestamp, cd/m^2
TMYData.ZenithlumSource See [1], Table 1-4
TMYData.ZenithlumUncertainty Uncertainty based on random and bias error estimates see [1] section 2.10
TMYData.TotCld Amount of sky dome covered by clouds or obscuring phenonema at time stamp, tenths of sky
TMYData.TotCldSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.TotCldUnertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.OpqCld Amount of sky dome covered by clouds or obscuring phenonema that prevent observing the sky at time stamp, tenths of sky
TMYData.OpqCldSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.OpqCldUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.DryBulb Dry bulb temperature at the time indicated, deg C
TMYData.DryBulbSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.DryBulbUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.DewPoint Dew-point temperature at the time indicated, deg C
TMYData.DewPointSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.DewPointUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.RHum Relatitudeive humidity at the time indicated, percent
TMYData.RHumSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.RHumUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Pressure Station pressure at the time indicated, 1 mbar
TMYData.PressureSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.PressureUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Wdir Wind direction at time indicated, degrees from north (360 = north; 0 = undefined,calm)
TMYData.WdirSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.WdirUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Wspd Wind speed at the time indicated, meter/second
TMYData.WspdSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.WspdUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Hvis Distance to discernable remote objects at time indicated (7777=unlimited), meter
TMYData.HvisSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.HvisUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.CeilHgt Height of cloud base above local terrain (7777=unlimited), meter
TMYData.CeilHgtSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.CeilHgtUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Pwat Total precipitable water contained in a column of unit cross section from earth to top of atmosphere, cm
TMYData.PwatSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.PwatUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.AOD The broadband aerosol optical depth per unit of air mass due to extinction by aerosol component of atmosphere, unitless
TMYData.AODSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.AODUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Alb The ratio of reflected solar irradiance to global horizontal irradiance, unitless
TMYData.AlbSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.AlbUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6
TMYData.Lprecipdepth The amount of liquid precipitation observed at indicated time for the period indicated in the liquid precipitation quantity field, millimeter
TMYData.Lprecipquantity The period of accumulatitudeion for the liquid precipitation depth field, hour
TMYData.LprecipSource See [1], Table 1-5, 8760x1 cell array of strings
TMYData.LprecipUncertainty See [1], Table 1-6

References

[1] Wilcox, S and Marion, W. “Users Manual for TMY3 Data Sets”. NREL/TP-581-43156, Revised May 2008.

[2] Wilcox, S. (2007). National Solar Radiation Database 1991 2005 Update: Users Manual. 472 pp.; NREL Report No. TP-581-41364.

## tracking¶

class pvlib.tracking.LocalizedSingleAxisTracker(pvsystem=None, location=None, **kwargs)[source]

Highly experimental.

class pvlib.tracking.SingleAxisTracker(axis_tilt=0, axis_azimuth=0, max_angle=90, backtrack=True, gcr=0.2857142857142857, **kwargs)[source]

Inherits all of the PV modeling methods from PVSystem.

get_irradiance(dni, ghi, dhi, dni_extra=None, airmass=None, model='haydavies', **kwargs)[source]

Uses the irradiance.total_irrad() function to calculate the plane of array irradiance components on a tilted surface defined by self.surface_tilt, self.surface_azimuth, and self.albedo.

Parameters: solar_zenith : float or Series. Solar zenith angle. solar_azimuth : float or Series. Solar azimuth angle. dni : float or Series Direct Normal Irradiance ghi : float or Series Global horizontal irradiance dhi : float or Series Diffuse horizontal irradiance dni_extra : float or Series Extraterrestrial direct normal irradiance airmass : float or Series Airmass model : String Irradiance model. **kwargs Passed to irradiance.total_irrad(). poa_irradiance : DataFrame Column names are: total, beam, sky, ground.
localize(location=None, latitude=None, longitude=None, **kwargs)[source]

Creates a LocalizedSingleAxisTracker object using this object and location data. Must supply either location object or latitude, longitude, and any location kwargs

Parameters: location : None or Location latitude : None or float longitude : None or float **kwargs : see Location localized_system : LocalizedSingleAxisTracker
singleaxis(apparent_zenith, apparent_azimuth)[source]
pvlib.tracking.singleaxis(apparent_zenith, apparent_azimuth, axis_tilt=0, axis_azimuth=0, max_angle=90, backtrack=True, gcr=0.2857142857142857)[source]

Determine the rotation angle of a single axis tracker using the equations in [1] when given a particular sun zenith and azimuth angle. backtracking may be specified, and if so, a ground coverage ratio is required.

Rotation angle is determined in a panel-oriented coordinate system. The tracker azimuth axis_azimuth defines the positive y-axis; the positive x-axis is 90 degress clockwise from the y-axis and parallel to the earth surface, and the positive z-axis is normal and oriented towards the sun. Rotation angle tracker_theta indicates tracker position relative to horizontal: tracker_theta = 0 is horizontal, and positive tracker_theta is a clockwise rotation around the y axis in the x, y, z coordinate system. For example, if tracker azimuth axis_azimuth is 180 (oriented south), tracker_theta = 30 is a rotation of 30 degrees towards the west, and tracker_theta = -90 is a rotation to the vertical plane facing east.

Parameters: apparent_zenith : Series Solar apparent zenith angles in decimal degrees. apparent_azimuth : Series Solar apparent azimuth angles in decimal degrees. axis_tilt : float The tilt of the axis of rotation (i.e, the y-axis defined by axis_azimuth) with respect to horizontal, in decimal degrees. axis_azimuth : float A value denoting the compass direction along which the axis of rotation lies. Measured in decimal degrees East of North. max_angle : float A value denoting the maximum rotation angle, in decimal degrees, of the one-axis tracker from its horizontal position (horizontal if axis_tilt = 0). A max_angle of 90 degrees allows the tracker to rotate to a vertical position to point the panel towards a horizon. max_angle of 180 degrees allows for full rotation. backtrack : bool Controls whether the tracker has the capability to “backtrack” to avoid row-to-row shading. False denotes no backtrack capability. True denotes backtrack capability. gcr : float A value denoting the ground coverage ratio of a tracker system which utilizes backtracking; i.e. the ratio between the PV array surface area to total ground area. A tracker system with modules 2 meters wide, centered on the tracking axis, with 6 meters between the tracking axes has a gcr of 2/6=0.333. If gcr is not provided, a gcr of 2/7 is default. gcr must be <=1. DataFrame with the following columns: tracker_theta: The rotation angle of the tracker. tracker_theta = 0 is horizontal, and positive rotation angles are clockwise. aoi: The angle-of-incidence of direct irradiance onto the rotated panel surface. surface_tilt: The angle between the panel surface and the earth surface, accounting for panel rotation. surface_azimuth: The azimuth of the rotated panel, determined by projecting the vector normal to the panel’s surface to the earth’s surface.

References

[1] Lorenzo, E et al., 2011, “Tracking and back-tracking”, Prog. in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, v. 19, pp. 747-753.

## tools¶

Collection of functions used in pvlib_python

pvlib.tools.asind(number)[source]

Inverse Sine returning an angle in degrees

Parameters: number : float Input number result : float arcsin result
pvlib.tools.cosd(angle)[source]

Cosine with angle input in degrees

Parameters: angle : float Angle in degrees result : float Cosine of the angle
pvlib.tools.datetime_to_djd(time)[source]

Converts a datetime to the Dublin Julian Day

Parameters: time : datetime.datetime time to convert float fractional days since 12/31/1899+0000
pvlib.tools.djd_to_datetime(djd, tz='UTC')[source]

Converts a Dublin Julian Day float to a datetime.datetime object

Parameters: djd : float fractional days since 12/31/1899+0000 tz : str timezone to localize the result to datetime.datetime The resultant datetime localized to tz
pvlib.tools.localize_to_utc(time, location)[source]

Converts or localizes a time series to UTC.

Parameters: time : datetime.datetime, pandas.DatetimeIndex, or pandas.Series/DataFrame with a DatetimeIndex. location : pvlib.Location object pandas object localized to UTC.
pvlib.tools.sind(angle)[source]

Sine with angle input in degrees

Parameters: angle : float Angle in degrees result : float Sin of the angle
pvlib.tools.tand(angle)[source]

Tan with angle input in degrees

Parameters: angle : float Angle in degrees result : float Tan of the angle