Simulating PV system DC output using the ADR module efficiency model#

Time series processing with the ADR model is really easy.

This example reads a TMY3 weather file, and runs a basic simulation on a fixed latitude-tilt system. Efficiency is independent of system size, so adjusting the system capacity is just a matter of setting the desired value, e.g. P_STC = 5000.

Author: Anton Driesse

import os
import pandas as pd
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

import pvlib
from pvlib import iotools, location
from pvlib.irradiance import get_total_irradiance
from pvlib.pvarray import pvefficiency_adr

Read a TMY3 file containing weather data and select needed columns

PVLIB_DIR = pvlib.__path__[0]
DATA_FILE = os.path.join(PVLIB_DIR, 'data', '723170TYA.CSV')

tmy, metadata = iotools.read_tmy3(DATA_FILE, coerce_year=1990,

df = pd.DataFrame({'ghi': tmy['ghi'], 'dhi': tmy['dhi'], 'dni': tmy['dni'],
                   'temp_air': tmy['temp_air'],
                   'wind_speed': tmy['wind_speed'],

Shift timestamps to middle of hour and then calculate sun positions

df.index = df.index - pd.Timedelta(minutes=30)

loc = location.Location.from_tmy(metadata)
solpos = loc.get_solarposition(df.index)

Determine total irradiance on a fixed-tilt array

TILT = metadata['latitude']
ORIENT = 180

total_irrad = get_total_irradiance(TILT, ORIENT,
                                   solpos.apparent_zenith, solpos.azimuth,
                                   df.dni, df.ghi, df.dhi)

df['poa_global'] = total_irrad.poa_global

Estimate the expected operating temperature of the PV modules

df['temp_pv'] = pvlib.temperature.faiman(df.poa_global, df.temp_air,

Now we’re ready to calculate PV array DC output power based on POA irradiance and PV module operating temperature. Among the models available in pvlib-python to do this are:

  • PVWatts

  • SAPM

  • single-diode model variations

And now also the ADR PV efficiency model

Simulation is done in two steps:

  • first calculate efficiency using the ADR model,

  • then convert (scale up) efficiency to power.

# Borrow the ADR model parameters from the other example:

adr_params = {'k_a': 0.99924,
              'k_d': -5.49097,
              'tc_d': 0.01918,
              'k_rs': 0.06999,
              'k_rsh': 0.26144

df['eta_rel'] = pvefficiency_adr(df['poa_global'], df['temp_pv'], **adr_params)

# Set the desired array size:
P_STC = 5000.   # (W)

# and the irradiance level needed to achieve this output:
G_STC = 1000.   # (W/m2)

df['p_mp'] = P_STC * df['eta_rel'] * (df['poa_global'] / G_STC)

Show how power and efficiency vary with both irradiance and temperature

pc = plt.scatter(df['poa_global'], df['eta_rel'], c=df['temp_pv'], cmap='jet')
plt.colorbar(label='Temperature [C]', ax=plt.gca())
plt.xlabel('Irradiance [W/m²]')
plt.ylabel('Relative efficiency [-]')

pc = plt.scatter(df['poa_global'], df['p_mp'], c=df['temp_pv'], cmap='jet')
plt.colorbar(label='Temperature [C]', ax=plt.gca())
plt.xlabel('Irradiance [W/m²]')
plt.ylabel('Array power [W]')
  • plot simulate system
  • plot simulate system

One day:

DEMO_DAY = '1990-08-05'

plt.ylabel('Power [W]')
plot simulate system



A. Driesse and J. S. Stein, “From IEC 61853 power measurements to PV system simulations”, Sandia Report No. SAND2020-3877, 2020. DOI: 10.2172/1615179


A. Driesse, M. Theristis and J. S. Stein, “A New Photovoltaic Module Efficiency Model for Energy Prediction and Rating,” in IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 527-534, March 2021. DOI: 10.1109/JPHOTOV.2020.3045677

Total running time of the script: (0 minutes 0.919 seconds)

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